A contract for a residential lease or purchase spells out all the expectations and responsibilities of all parties involved. These documents aren’t just formalities; think of it as a legal blueprint for the relationship between homeowners or landlords and tenants. Typical components of a Florida residential contract include terms about rent payments, property maintenance, and conditions under which deposits are held and returned.

Contracts are binding legal agreements, and failing to adhere to them can lead to disruptive lives and incur financial penalties. Whether it’s a landlord failing to keep the property safe and habitable or a tenant skipping rent payments, breaches can have substantial consequences.

Common Landlord Breaches in Florida

In Florida, like other states, landlords are legally obligated to maintain their properties in a condition that ensures safety and habitability. This includes a wide range of duties from routine maintenance to urgent repairs. For example, consider what would happen if a landlord ignored a tenant’s complaints about a leaking roof. Over time, this neglect leads to mold growth, which not only damages the tenant’s belongings but also poses serious health risks. This would be classified as negligence-a clear breach of the landlord’s duty to provide a habitable living environment.

Another critical aspect of landlord responsibilities is adhering to the lawful process of eviction. Evicting a tenant without proper notice or through illegal means directly violates Florida statutes.

Legal Ramifications and Tenant Remedies

When landlords fail to meet their obligations, the consequences can be significant. Tenants may have several legal options available, such as withholding rent until necessary repairs are made, or in extreme cases, they might be justified in terminating the lease without penalty. Financial penalties, legal injunctions, and even restrictions on a landlord’s ability to rent out property may follow if the issues go to court.

To prevent such breaches of contract, landlords should consider regular inspections to stay ahead of maintenance issues and keep open lines of communication with their tenants to stay ahead of problems and complaints. Staying informed about changes in landlord-tenant laws is also crucial to avoid common pitfalls that lead to contract breaches.

Common Tenant Breaches in Florida

Tenants also have a set of obligations they must adhere to under a lease agreement. Failure to comply can lead to serious consequences, affecting their housing security and financial status.

Non-Payment or Late Payment of Rent: One of the most common breaches by tenants is the failure to pay rent on time. In Florida, landlords must provide tenants with a notice, typically three days (excluding weekends and legal holidays), to pay the rent or vacate the property before proceeding with eviction actions. Consistently late payments or non-payment can lead to eviction proceedings and might negatively impact a tenant’s credit score and ability to rent in the future.

Damage to Property: Tenants are expected to maintain the property and prevent any damage beyond normal wear and tear. This includes all the way until after the move-out, often called “broom clean condition clause” in the lease itself. Significant damage can result from negligence or abuse of the property, such as broken fixtures, unapproved alterations, or excessive wear. In cases like that, landlords may deduct repair costs from the tenant’s security deposit or, if costs exceed the deposit amount, pursue further legal action to recover the funds.

Unauthorized Occupants or Subletting: Lease agreements often specify who may reside in the rental unit. Adding occupants without the landlord’s approval or subletting the property contrary to the terms of the lease can be grounds for a breach. This is particularly sensitive in Florida, where many communities have strict regulations about short-term rentals and subletting.

Legal Consequences and Landlord Remedies

When tenants breach their lease agreements, landlords have specific legal channels they can pursue. Eviction is the most direct consequence, but it must follow a legal process that includes proper notice and the opportunity for the tenant to remedy the breach when applicable. Landlords might also claim damages in court if the breach has caused significant financial losses.

Preventive Measures for Tenants

To avoid breaches, tenants should thoroughly review and understand their lease agreement before signing. Communicating openly with landlords about any issues or necessary changes in the living arrangement can prevent misunderstandings. Additionally, tenants should ensure they are fully aware of the legal requirements and community rules in Florida that pertain to their rental situation.

Strategies for Resolution of Disputes

Mediation and Negotiation: Before resorting to legal battles, both parties may benefit from mediation or negotiation. These alternative dispute-resolution methods can save time, reduce costs, and preserve relationships. Mediation involves a neutral third party who helps landlords and tenants reach a mutually acceptable solution.

Legal Representation: In cases where mediation does not resolve the issue, or the breach is too severe, seeking legal representation becomes essential. Florida real estate attorneys can provide guidance on the rights and obligations under the lease and state law, helping to go through the legal process effectively.

Florida Dispute Resolution Programs: Florida offers several programs aimed at helping landlords and tenants resolve disputes without going to court. These programs often focus on quick resolutions that are enforceable by law, ensuring that both parties comply with the agreed-upon terms.


Stephen K. Hachey P.A. Stephen K. Hachey P.A.
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Call Now! (813) 549-0096

You’re about to buy your first home. It’s an exciting time, but as you get excited about a recent gem of a house you’ve found, you realize that it has old debts on it. Unfortunately, this happens quite often, which is why it’s so important to check for liens. It’s a key step to make sure your new home doesn’t come with surprises.

Property Liens 101

A property lien is a legal notice that says the owner of a property owes money. If someone doesn’t pay taxes, their contractor, or their loans, a lien might be placed on their property. This means if you buy a property with a lien, you might end up being responsible for those unpaid debts. That’s why knowing if there are any liens is a must-do before you decide to buy a property. Basically, it helps you avoid big problems later.

Preparing for a Lien Search

Before you start looking for liens, you need to gather some important details about the property and its owner. First, find out exactly who owns the property. Then, get the legal description of the property, which is like a detailed address that legal documents use. You can usually find this information online or at local government offices. Knowing these details will help you search the right records and make sure you don’t miss anything important.

Steps to Conduct a Lien Search in Florida

Once you have all the information you need, you can start looking up liens. Here’s how to do it in Florida:

  1. Check Local Records: Start by visiting your county’s official website. Each county in Florida has a database where you can look up property records, including liens. For example, here’s the link for Pinellas county.
  2. Visit the Assessor’s Office: If you need more details or can’t find what you’re looking for online, you can go to the local assessor’s office. They have all the records about property ownership and debts.
  3. Look at State and Federal Records: Sometimes, liens come from unpaid state or federal taxes. Check the Florida Department of Revenue and the U.S. Internal Revenue Service websites to see if there are any tax liens.

These steps will help you get a clear picture of any claims that might be on the property. This way, you can deal with them before they become your problem.

Should I Hire a Professional?

A lawyer shaking hands with his new client

Title services/agents and real estate attorneys bring a level of expertise and precision that goes beyond basic record searching. They are trained to interpret complex legal documents and identify subtle issues that could pose significant risks later.

For example, an experienced real estate attorney can detect discrepancies in the chain of title that might indicate fraud or clerical errors that could affect your legal ownership. They also ensure that all procedural requirements are met, including the proper filing and release of liens, safeguarding your investment from future legal disputes.

In states like Florida, where real estate law can be particularly intricate due to issues like hurricane damage claims or condo association liens, their expertise becomes even more essential (especially with the ongoing changes and turmoil in the insurance industry).

The Importance of a Title Search

A comprehensive title search examines the property’s entire ownership history, ensuring that every transaction leading to the current ownership has been legally sound. This includes:

  • Verifying that all previous liens have been properly discharged
  • Checking for any restrictions or easements that might limit how the property can be used
  • Confirming that the property’s boundaries are accurately described in public records

Such thorough diligence is vital because any oversight can lead to legal challenges. For instance, if a previous owner failed to pay a contractor, and the contractor filed a lien that was never resolved, this could become the new owner’s responsibility unless it’s addressed before the sale.

Exploring Tax Liens as Investments

Investing in tax liens in Florida presents a unique financial opportunity, but it also requires a nuanced understanding of the process itself.

When a property owner fails to pay their taxes, the county places a lien on the property. Investors can purchase these liens at auctions, essentially paying the taxes owed in exchange for the right to collect back that amount plus interest from the homeowner. If the homeowner fails to repay within a set period, the lienholder may even have the right to foreclose on the property.

All that said, it goes without saying that this type of investment is far from risk-free. Thorough research and sometimes legal advice are crucial to understanding the property’s value, the likelihood of repayment, and the legal steps involved in case of foreclosure.


Remember, the cost of a comprehensive title search and legal consultation is minimal compared to the potential financial and legal issues that could arise from an undiscovered lien. Investing the time and resources upfront to thoroughly understand the property’s legal standing will not only provide peace of mind but also secure your property’s value for the future. Happy hunting!


Stephen K. Hachey P.A. Stephen K. Hachey P.A.
Have Questions?
Speak With a Real Estate Attorney Now
Call Now! (813) 549-0096

Breaking a lease in Florida is a decision that should not be taken lightly. It could be because of personal circumstances, such as a job relocation, or more distressing situations like unsuitable living conditions. But regardless, understanding the legal framework and potential consequences is crucial.

Legal Grounds for Breaking a Lease in Florida

Justified Reasons to Break a Lease

  • Active Military Service: Florida law accommodates those in military service under the federal Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (SCRA). This act allows service members who receive permanent change of station orders, or who are deployed for a period of not less than 90 days, to terminate their rental agreements without penalty, provided they deliver written notice to their landlords along with a copy of the deployment orders.
  • Unsafe or Uninhabitable Conditions: Tenants have the right to a safe and habitable living environment as mandated by Florida health and safety codes. If a rental unit fails to meet these standards — for example, due to severe issues like toxic mold, broken heating or cooling systems during extreme weather conditions, or significant water leaks — tenants may have the right to break their lease without facing penalties, following adequate notice and failure of the landlord to remedy the problem.
  • Landlord Harassment: Tenants are entitled to privacy and peaceful enjoyment of their premises. If a landlord unlawfully invades a tenant’s privacy or engages in harassment — such as entering an apartment without proper notice or repeatedly harassing a tenant to an extent that it disrupts their peace and quiet — the tenant may be justified in terminating their lease early.

Unjustified Reasons to Break a Lease

Many tenants mistakenly believe that personal dissatisfaction or changes in life circumstances (such as deciding to buy a house or moving in with a partner) automatically allow for lease-breaking without penalties. However, unless these conditions are explicitly stipulated in the early termination clause of the lease agreement, those reasons don’t legally justify breaking a lease in Florida without incurring financial liabilities.

Due to our current caseload, our office simply does not the have the resources
needed to dedicate to any additional tenant legal matters.
Any tenant-specific legal matters should be referred to the following organization:
Lawyer Referral Service Online (available 24/7) — https://www.floridabar.org/public/lrs/
or Phone (800) 342-8011 Monday through Friday 8:00 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.

Understanding Lease Agreements

Early Termination Clauses: Many lease agreements in Florida include an early termination clause, which outlines conditions under which tenants may legally end their lease early without significant penalties. These clauses typically require a notice period (often 60 days) and may require the tenant to pay a termination fee, which could range from one to two months’ rent. It’s vital for tenants to read and understand these clauses before signing a lease, as they dictate the specific steps and financial obligations involved in legally terminating the lease early.

Tenant Rights and Responsibilities: When signing a lease, tenants are agreeing to certain obligations, such as paying rent for the full lease term and maintaining the property in good condition. Florida law also provides tenants with specific rights, such as the right to a habitable environment and the right to be notified before the landlord enters the property.

Procedures for Breaking a Lease

Notice Requirements: Florida law requires tenants who wish to break their lease to provide written notice to their landlords. The notice must clearly state the reason for termination and the intended move-out date. This notice should ideally be delivered in a manner that can be verified later, such as via certified mail or hand delivery with a witness present.

Delivering a Lease Notice: The notice should include all relevant details such as the effective date of lease termination and the reason for breaking the lease. If breaking the lease due to uninhabitable conditions, tenants should include evidence such as photographs, previous complaints, and communication with the landlord regarding the issue. This documentation can be essential if the landlord challenges the lease termination or if there are disputes over security deposits or damages.

Minimizing Financial Liability

When breaking a lease, the financial implications can be significant. However, there are several strategies that tenants can use to minimize these costs:

Landlord’s Duty to Mitigate Damages: Under Florida law, landlords are required to make a reasonable effort to re-rent the unit rather than charge the tenant for the total remaining rent due under the lease. This duty to mitigate damages means that if the unit is re-rented, the former tenant is only responsible for the rent amount due until the new tenant begins paying rent. It’s important for tenants to understand that while this can reduce their financial burden, they may still be liable for any reasonable costs the landlord incurs in re-renting the property, such as advertising.

Strategies to Minimize Financial Responsibility: Tenants can proactively approach their landlords to negotiate an early termination agreement, which might include a lower termination fee than stipulated by the lease. At the end of the day, it’s up to them, and it doesn’t hurt to at least ask.

Another strategy is to find a replacement tenant to take over the lease, commonly referred to as subletting or lease assignment, subject to the landlord’s approval. This approach not only helps in fulfilling the lease obligations but also assists the landlord by providing a ready replacement without incurring additional advertising costs or vacancies.

Legal Support and Advice

When to Seek Legal Advice: There are instances when consulting with a legal professional is advisable, particularly if the tenant’s rights are being violated or if the lease termination involves complex legal issues. Legal advice can be crucial in situations involving disputed terms of the lease, significant property damage, or conflicts over the return of a security deposit.

Landlord-Tenant Law Resources: For more detailed information and support, tenants can access resources from the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services or consult legal aid organizations dedicated to housing issues. There are also resources and referrals for lawyers specializing in landlord-tenant law.

Due to our current caseload, our office simply does not the have the resources
needed to dedicate to any additional tenant legal matters.
Any tenant-specific legal matters should be referred to the following organization:
Lawyer Referral Service Online (available 24/7) — https://www.floridabar.org/public/lrs/
or Phone (800) 342-8011 Monday through Friday 8:00 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.


Breaking a lease in Florida involves understanding the complexities of legal rights and responsibilities. By being informed about the justified reasons for lease termination, adhering to the correct procedures for notice and documentation, and actively managing the financial implications, tenants can find their way around this process. Some elbow grease and patience helps too! Regardless of which route you take, running your situation by a legal professional can help along the way.

In Florida, property deeds are essential documents in real estate transactions, serving as the official means by which ownership is transferred. While many assume that holding a mortgage equates to owning property, it is actually the deed that confers ownership rights. Given that, it’s a really important distinction for anyone involved in buying, selling, or transferring property in Florida.

Understanding Property Deeds

A property deed is a legal instrument that conveys an interest in real property from one party to another. It is more than just a document; it is the vehicle through which the right of ownership is transferred. The deed must clearly outline who is transferring the property (the grantor) and who is receiving it (the grantee). It should also accurately describe the property and must be signed, witnessed, and often notarized to be considered legally valid in Florida.

Different types of deeds provide varying levels of warranty, which can significantly impact the grantee’s rights and the grantor’s obligations. Here’s a good example: some deeds offer guarantees against defects in the title that predate the grantor’s ownership, while others offer no such assurances, merely transferring whatever interest the grantor may hold.

Types of Property Deeds in Florida

1. General Warranty Deed

A General Warranty Deed offers the most comprehensive protection for the buyer. It guarantees that the property title is free from any defects, encumbrances, or claims—including those that might have arisen before the current seller owned the property. This type of deed is most commonly used in residential property transactions. The grantor of a General Warranty Deed makes a legal promise to the grantee that any issues with the title, stretching back through the property’s history, will be addressed by the grantor, providing peace of mind and a high level of security in the property’s ownership.

2. Special Warranty Deed

In contrast to the General Warranty Deed, a Special Warranty Deed only covers the period during which the grantor owned the property. It guarantees that there are no defects or liens that arose during that specific timeframe but does not protect against any issues that may have existed before the grantor’s ownership. This deed is often used in commercial real estate transactions where the grantor is willing to vouch for their period of ownership but cannot guarantee the property’s earlier history. Buyers should be cautious and conduct thorough due diligence when a Special Warranty Deed is offered.

3. Quitclaim Deed

The Quitclaim Deed offers the least protection of all deed types. It transfers only the grantor’s interest in the property, which might be none at all, without any warranties regarding the quality of the title. This deed is commonly used between family members, in divorce settlements, or in other informal transactions where the parties know each other and the property history well. Quitclaim Deeds are also used to clear up title issues by transferring interests without the formalities of other deeds. Buyers should be particularly cautious with Quitclaim Deeds, as they offer no protection against defects in the title.

4. Life Estate Deed

A Life Estate Deed allows a property owner (the grantor) to transfer ownership to another party (the remainderman), while retaining the right to occupy and use the property for their lifetime (life tenant). Upon the death of the life tenant, the property automatically transfers to the remainderman without the need for probate. This type of deed is beneficial for estate planning as it ensures a smooth and predefined transfer of property upon the grantor’s death, but it restricts the life tenant’s ability to sell or mortgage the property without the remainderman’s consent.

5. Enhanced Life Estate Deed (Lady Bird Deed)

This special type of Life Estate Deed, also known as a Lady Bird Deed in Florida, offers additional flexibility. It allows the grantor to retain control over the property during their lifetime, including the rights to sell or mortgage the property without needing consent from the remainder beneficiaries. This deed also bypasses probate, automatically transferring ownership upon the grantor’s death. The Lady Bird Deed is an attractive option if you wish to retain full control over your property while alive but ensure it passes to a designated beneficiary upon their death.

Choosing the Right Deed

Selecting the appropriate deed for a real estate transaction in Florida hinges on multiple factors, including the nature of the property, the relationship between the parties involved, and the level of assurance desired by the buyer. Here’s a quick and dirty “cheat sheet” that can help steer you in the right direction:

Nature of the Transaction: Residential transactions commonly utilize General Warranty Deeds due to the comprehensive protection they offer. For commercial properties, where past liabilities might be more complex, a Special Warranty Deed might be more appropriate, limiting the seller’s responsibility to their period of ownership.

Relationship Between Parties: If the transaction is between family members or close friends, a Quitclaim Deed might suffice, given the existing trust and familiarity with the property’s history. However, in transactions where such personal trust does not exist, opting for deeds that provide more extensive warranties would be wise.

Legal Protection: Buyers seeking maximum security and recourse should prefer General Warranty Deeds, as they provide extensive protection against title defects. Those willing to assume more risk might opt for a Special Warranty or Quitclaim Deed, especially in scenarios where the buyer is capable of managing potential issues independently.

Future Intentions: For those considering future estate planning, Life Estate Deeds or Enhanced Life Estate Deeds (Lady Bird Deeds) can be advantageous. These deeds allow for the current use and enjoyment of the property while ensuring a smooth transition upon the grantor’s death, without the complexities of probate.


Stephen K. Hachey P.A. Stephen K. Hachey P.A.
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Speak With a Real Estate Attorney Now
Call Now! (813) 549-0096

Property is one of the most valuable investments you can focus your capital on. In the best case scenarios, you can purchase your land, improve it, rent it out, or live on it without any disruptions. But what about when it’s necessary to leave it unoccupied for some time. Perhaps your development finances are taking longer than planned to gather or you’re waiting for the value to appreciate before flipping? Well, this is when complications can arise.

Adverse possession has become a real concern for Florida landowners, particularly in recent years where opportunistic parties have aimed to take advantage of the law and target vacant properties. Let’s take a closer look at how adverse possession works in Florida and what you should know about the legal processes involved.

What is Adverse Possession?

So, what is adverse possession? At its core, adverse possession is a practice in which someone can claim ownership of land or a property as a result of their occupation of it for a period of time.

This is something that usually homeowners may come up against in the case of long-term squatters. If certain conditions are met, the title to your legally-owned property can be transferred to someone else.

Aside from the obvious loss of your investment, there can be other consequences to adverse possession. These include:

  • Clouded Title: A clouded title arises when there is uncertainty or dispute regarding the true ownership of the property, often due to adverse possession claims. A property with a clouded title may encounter difficulties in the real estate market, as potential buyers may be hesitant to invest in a property with unresolved ownership issues.
  • Legal Costs: Defending against adverse possession claims can be costly and time-consuming for property owners. Legal proceedings to challenge adverse possession claims often involve complex evidentiary issues, expert testimony, and extensive litigation. You might incur significant legal fees and expenses in your efforts to protect your ownership rights.
  • Impact on Property Value and Use: Adverse possession disputes can adversely affect the value and use of the property. Uncertainty surrounding ownership rights may diminish the property’s market value and limit its potential uses. Additionally, adverse possession claims can impede property owners’ ability to access financing or obtain insurance for their land.
  • Inequity: Adverse possession laws, while intended to prevent land from lying idle and promote efficient land use, can sometimes lead to inequitable outcomes. In some cases, adverse possessors may exploit loopholes or manipulate the Florida legal system to gain ownership of valuable property at the expense of rightful owners. Such outcomes can undermine public confidence in property rights and the rule of law.

These types of consequences are why it’s so important to gain a better understanding of the concept of adverse possession. The more knowledge you have at your disposal, the better you can take steps to protect your investment.

The Requirements for Adverse Possession in Florida

Two story house in a beach neighborhood

Adverse possession is not something that an occupant of your property can claim whenever they feel like it. Fortunately, Florida law offers a certain amount of protection to property owners by putting certain conditions that must be met by the occupant. Naturally, an experienced real estate attorney can help you to understand whether or not an unauthorized occupant potentially meets these criteria. Nevertheless, the criteria are worth exploring so you can see how they might fit into current property disputes and also so you can take preventative steps to ensure your unoccupied property doesn’t run the risk of being hit with such claims.

Open and Notorious Use

To claim adverse possession in Florida, the occupancy of the land must be open and obvious to anyone who might observe it. This means the possessor’s use of the land can’t be done in secret or be purposely hidden. In other words, it should be obvious enough that a reasonable owner would become aware of the occupation pretty quickly.

Continuous Possession

Continuous possession is another essential requirement for adverse possession in Florida. An occupant can’t just force entry into your property and immediately claim ownership rights. The adverse possessor must occupy and use the land continuously for the statutory period prescribed by Florida law. Under Title VIII Chapter 95 of the Florida Statutes, the occupant must have been in “continued possession of real property for 7 years.” There can’t have been any interruptions to this occupancy, or the claim may be considered invalid.

Payment of taxes and liens

One of the key requirements in Florida for adverse possession is that the occupant must show that they’ve been paying property taxes. Indeed, the Florida statutes assert that the occupant must also have paid any outstanding property taxes and liens within a year of occupancy.

The Legal Process

So, as the true property owner, how does the legal process of defending against an adverse possession claim work? Well, there are various steps involved and you may even become aware of the intent for the possessor to make a claim before the official process is in play. It’s vital to collaborate with an experienced real estate attorney at the earliest opportunity. They’ll be able to talk you through the likely process you’ll face, any actions you can take to limit the fallout, and your best routes for defense. In general, though, the process will run as follows.

Receipt of Notice

The legal process typically begins when the property owner receives notice or becomes aware of the adverse possession claim. The occupant may have simply filed a claim for adverse possession with the relevant local property assessor, resulting in a notice to you. In some instances, you might discover their intent to file a claim by witnessing their unauthorized occupation or use of the property, or be notified by neighbors or third parties.

Assessment of the Adverse Possession Claim

Upon learning of the adverse possession claim, property owners should promptly assess the validity and merits of the claim. This involves consulting with an attorney and collaborating in reviewing relevant documentation, such as property records, surveys, and evidence of possession, to evaluate whether the adverse possessor has satisfied the statutory requirements for adverse possession.

Gathering Evidence and Documentation

Property owners must gather evidence and documentation to support their defense against the adverse possession claim. This may include property records, surveys, tax documents, photographs of the property, witness statements, and any other relevant evidence demonstrating ownership and active use of the property.

Initiation of Legal Proceedings

If necessary, property owners may need to initiate legal proceedings to challenge the adverse possession claim and protect their property rights. This may involve filing a lawsuit, such as a quiet title action, to establish the property owner’s rightful ownership and remove any cloud on the title caused by the adverse possession claim.

Presentation of Defenses and Counterarguments

Property owners—usually through their legal counsel—will present defenses and counterarguments to refute the adverse possession claim. This may involve challenging the adverse possessor’s compliance with statutory requirements, asserting ownership rights based on title documents or historical evidence, and demonstrating interruptions in the adverse possessor’s possession.

Resolution of the Dispute

Ultimately, the dispute over adverse possession may be resolved through negotiation, settlement agreements, or court rulings. Property owners should work closely with their legal counsel to pursue the most favorable outcome and protect their property rights effectively. It’s important to remember, though, that Florida’s adverse possession rules are very strict and successful claims are relatively unusual in recent years, due to changes in statutes to favor true property owners.

Be Vigilant and Proactive

There can be various reasons that your property is unoccupied or unused for some time. This shouldn’t necessarily threaten your rights as the owner. It is vital to protect yourself against adverse possession claims by first being vigilant about who may be using your land without permission or incorrectly, preferably through regular inspections of the property. From here, you need to be proactive about minimizing the potential for claims from unauthorized occupants. Collaborating with an experienced real estate attorney can empower you to arrange legal removal of those using land without your permission and defend against claims through the use of litigation.

Stephen K. Hachey P.A. Stephen K. Hachey P.A.
Have Questions?
Speak With a Real Estate Attorney Now
Call Now! (813) 549-0096

In the realm of property transactions, the real estate contract serves as the cornerstone, delineating the terms under which the sale and purchase of a property will proceed. For both buyers and sellers, understanding the duration of a real estate contract is crucial, as it impacts planning, financial decisions, and legal obligations.

Key Components of a Real Estate Contract

A real estate contract, at its core, is a legally binding agreement between a buyer and a seller to transfer ownership of a property. While the specifics can vary, certain key components are universally found in these contracts:

  • Parties Involved: Clearly identifies the buyer and seller.
  • Property Details: Includes the legal description of the property, address, and any relevant details about the land or buildings.
  • Sale Price: The agreed-upon amount the buyer will pay the seller.
  • Contingencies: Conditions that must be met for the transaction to proceed, such as financing approval, satisfactory home inspections, and appraisals.
  • Closing Date: The scheduled date for the completion of the transaction, when ownership officially transfers from the seller to the buyer.

In Florida, as in many places, these components form the backbone of the contract, setting the stage for the transaction’s timeline. The closing date is particularly pivotal, serving as the target end date for the contract. However, the path to this date can be influenced by several factors, particularly contingencies, which can extend the duration of the contract if not promptly addressed.

Standard Duration of Real Estate Contracts

The typical real estate contract spans the period from the signing of the agreement to the closing date, when the transaction is finalized, and the property officially changes hands. In Florida, as well as in many other regions, this period commonly ranges from 30 to 60 days. However, the exact duration can vary significantly based on several factors, including the type of financing involved and the specific terms agreed upon by the buyer and seller. For instance, transactions involving cash purchases may close more quickly than those requiring mortgage financing, due to the absence of lender-required documentation and approval processes.

Contingencies and Their Impact on Contract Duration

Contingencies are specific conditions outlined in the real estate contract that must be fulfilled for the transaction to proceed to closing. Common contingencies include:

  • Inspection Contingency: Allows the buyer to have the property inspected and, depending on the findings, renegotiate or withdraw their offer without penalty.
  • Financing Contingency: Ensures the sale is contingent upon the buyer securing financing from a lender.
  • Appraisal Contingency: Requires that the property be appraised at a value at or above the sale price.
  • Sale of Current Home Contingency: For buyers who need to sell their existing home to finance the new purchase.

These contingencies can extend the duration of a real estate contract in Florida if additional time is needed to meet the conditions. For example, if a home inspection reveals significant issues, the buyer and seller may enter negotiations for repairs, which can delay the closing process.

Extensions and Amendments

There are instances when the parties involved in a real estate transaction agree to extend the contract beyond the original closing date. This can occur for various reasons, such as delays in loan processing, issues identified during the inspection that require more time to address, or extended negotiations over appraisal discrepancies. In such cases, both parties must agree to an extension, typically formalized through an amendment to the original contract.

These amendments not only adjust the closing date but can also modify other terms of the contract as needed to accommodate the new timeline. It’s important for both buyers and sellers to approach extensions with flexibility and a clear understanding of their implications, ideally with guidance from legal counsel to ensure their interests are protected.

Termination of Contracts Before Expiry

While understanding the duration and potential extensions of a real estate contract is crucial, it’s equally important to recognize conditions under which a contract can be terminated before reaching its intended conclusion. In Florida, as in other jurisdictions, either party may have the right to terminate the contract under specific circumstances outlined within the contingencies.

For example, if a buyer is unable to secure financing within the stipulated timeframe, or if a critical defect is discovered during the inspection that cannot be satisfactorily resolved, the contract may be voided without penalty to the buyer. Sellers, on the other hand, have fewer opportunities to terminate but may do so if buyers fail to meet their obligations under the contract terms. Understanding these potential exit points is vital for both parties to manage their expectations and prepare for all possible outcomes of the transaction.


The duration of a real estate contract can vary widely, influenced by factors such as contingencies, financing requirements, and the specific terms agreed upon by the buyer and seller. Whether dealing with extensions, navigating the implications of contingencies, or considering the termination of a contract, the guidance of a real estate attorney can be invaluable.


Stephen K. Hachey P.A. Stephen K. Hachey P.A.
Have Questions?
Speak With a Real Estate Attorney Now
Call Now! (813) 549-0096

Simply put, a contingent offer includes conditions that must be met for the transaction to proceed, whereas a noncontingent offer does not, making it a straightforward proposal to purchase.

Understanding Contingent Offers

A contingent offer in real estate is essentially an offer to buy a property that includes one or more conditions that must be satisfied before the sale can finalize. These conditions, or contingencies, are designed to protect the buyer, allowing them to back out of the sale under specific circumstances without losing their deposit. Common contingencies include:

  • Inspection Contingency: This allows the buyer to have the property inspected within a certain timeframe. If significant defects are found, the buyer can renegotiate or withdraw their offer without penalty.
  • Financing Contingency: This ensures that the deal is dependent on the buyer securing financing from a lender. If the buyer cannot obtain a loan, they can cancel the contract.
  • Appraisal Contingency: This condition requires that the property be appraised at a value that is at or above the sale price. If the appraisal comes in lower, the buyer has the option to renegotiate or terminate the agreement.
  • Sale of Current Home Contingency: For buyers who need to sell their current home to finance the new purchase, this contingency allows them to withdraw if they cannot sell within a specified period.

Contingent offers, while offering protection to the buyer, introduce a level of uncertainty for sellers. They must wait to see if the buyer can fulfill the conditions, potentially missing out on other offers in the meantime. However, in competitive markets, buyers may find contingent offers more appealing to sellers if they are willing to negotiate on the terms of the contingencies.

Understanding Noncontingent Offers

Noncontingent offers, often referred to as “firm” offers, are proposals to purchase a property without any conditions attached.

This means the buyer is committed to proceeding with the purchase regardless of issues like financing approval, the results of a home inspection, or the property’s appraised value. Noncontingent offers are attractive to sellers because they offer a higher degree of certainty that the transaction will close, and they typically lead to a faster sales process.

Choosing to make a noncontingent offer can be a strategic move for buyers in a competitive market, signaling serious intent and financial stability to the seller. However, it carries inherent risks, as the buyer getting an “as-is” property and assumes all responsibility for any unforeseen problems that may come up after the offer is accepted. Buyers considering a noncontingent offer should be confident in their financial situation and possibly consult with a real estate attorney to fully understand the implications.

Comparing Contingent and Noncontingent Offers

When comparing contingent and noncontingent offers, the main differences lie in the level of risk assumed by the buyer and the degree of certainty provided to the seller. Contingent offers, while offering a safety net for buyers, can be less appealing to sellers who are looking for a quick and secure sale. These offers may be subject to delays as the specified conditions are met, such as securing financing or completing a satisfactory home inspection.

On the other hand, noncontingent offers present a straightforward path to sale, free from the potential obstacles that contingencies can introduce. For sellers, this means a smoother and quicker transaction. For buyers, the appeal of a noncontingent offer lies in its potential to stand out in a crowded market, though this comes at the cost of taking on more risk.

In a seller’s market, where competition among buyers is fierce, noncontingent offers may be more common. Conversely, in a buyer’s market, purchasers might find more flexibility to include contingencies without weakening their negotiating position.

Legal Considerations and Implications

Navigating the legal landscape of contingent and noncontingent offers requires a keen understanding of their implications. For contingent offers, it’s crucial that the conditions are clearly defined and legally sound to ensure they provide the intended protection. Buyers should work closely with a real estate attorney to craft contingencies that are specific, measurable, and tied to realistic timelines. This precision helps prevent disputes over whether conditions have been met and protects the buyer’s deposit in the event of contract termination.

Noncontingent offers, while seemingly straightforward, also carry legal considerations. Buyers must be aware of the binding nature of these offers once accepted. Without contingencies to provide exit routes, buyers are legally obligated to proceed with the purchase, barring any breach by the seller. Understanding the full scope of this commitment is essential, and legal counsel can provide valuable guidance on the risks involved and strategies for mitigation. Read more here about when you should hire an attorney during this process.

Tips for Buyers and Sellers

For Buyers:

  • Contingent Offers: Evaluate your financial situation and the property’s condition carefully before deciding on contingencies. Be prepared to act quickly to meet the conditions, and consider the market dynamics to ensure your offer remains competitive.
  • Noncontingent Offers: Ensure you have a comprehensive understanding of your financial stability and the property’s value. A noncontingent offer can be a powerful tool in a competitive market, but it’s vital to assess the risks thoroughly.

For Sellers:

  • Evaluating Offers: Consider the pros and cons of contingent and noncontingent offers. While the latter may promise a smoother transaction, don’t discount contingent offers without considering the buyer’s ability to meet the conditions and the overall strength of their proposal.
  • Negotiation: Use the nature of the offer as a negotiation tool. For contingent offers, you might negotiate shorter timelines for conditions or higher deposits to mitigate the risk of delays.


The decision between making or accepting a contingent versus a noncontingent offer in real estate transactions is multifaceted, involving considerations of risk, market conditions, and legal obligations. Both buyers and sellers must weigh these factors carefully to make informed choices that align with their goals and circumstances. Engaging a real estate attorney can provide crucial insights into the implications of each type of offer, ensuring that parties not only understand their options but also navigate the complexities of real estate transactions with confidence.


Stephen K. Hachey P.A. Stephen K. Hachey P.A.
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Welcome to the complex world of property taxes in Florida, a crucial aspect for every property owner and potential buyer in the Sunshine State. Understanding the nuances between Ad Valorem and Non Ad Valorem taxes is not just about fulfilling a legal obligation; it’s about making informed decisions that can significantly affect your financial well-being. This article aims to demystify these terms, providing you with a clear understanding of what they mean, how they’re calculated, and why they matter to you as a Florida resident.

Understanding Ad Valorem Taxes in Florida

Ad Valorem taxes, a Latin term meaning “according to value,” are property taxes that are based on the assessed value of your real estate property in Florida. These taxes fund local services such as schools, fire departments, and municipal services that benefit the community at large.

In Florida, the process for calculating Ad Valorem taxes involves assessing the property’s value at the beginning of the year and then applying the millage rate, which is the amount per $1,000 of property value used to calculate taxes owed. Local government entities set these rates, which can vary depending on the area and the services provided.

Understanding Non Ad Valorem Taxes in Florida

Contrary to Ad Valorem taxes, Non Ad Valorem taxes are not based on the property value but are assessed for specific services or benefits provided to the property. These can include charges for waste disposal, water management, street lighting, and infrastructure improvements, among others. In Florida, Non Ad Valorem assessments are often found on the same tax bill as Ad Valorem taxes but are calculated independently and serve different purposes.

Both types of taxes play a significant role in the financial responsibilities of owning property in Florida. By understanding the distinctions and implications of Ad Valorem and Non Ad Valorem taxes, property owners can better navigate the complexities of real estate ownership and ensure they are not only compliant with state laws but also making the most out of their investments.

Key Differences Between Ad Valorem and Non Ad Valorem Taxes in Florida

The primary distinction between Ad Valorem and Non Ad Valorem taxes lies in their basis of assessment. Ad Valorem taxes are levied based on the assessed value of the property, reflecting the property’s worth and the tax rate determined by various local government entities. This means that as the value of a property increases, so does the tax liability. In contrast, Non Ad Valorem taxes are assessed for specific services that do not depend on the property’s value but rather on the nature of the services provided.

For Florida property owners, this distinction is crucial. Ad Valorem taxes are variable and can fluctuate with changes in property value, while Non Ad Valorem taxes are generally fixed charges that remain consistent regardless of property value changes. Understanding this can help property owners anticipate their tax obligations, especially in rapidly appreciating real estate markets or when improvements are made to the property.

Legal Considerations and Disputes in Florida

Disputes over property tax assessments, whether Ad Valorem or Non Ad Valorem, are not uncommon in Florida. Property owners who believe their property has been overvalued, leading to higher Ad Valorem taxes, or who dispute the validity of Non Ad Valorem assessments, have legal avenues available for challenging these taxes.

In Florida, the process typically begins with an appeal to the local county’s Value Adjustment Board, which reviews disputes related to property tax assessments. Property owners are encouraged to present evidence that supports their claim, such as recent appraisals, comparable property assessments, or documentation regarding the specific Non Ad Valorem charges being contested.

For those navigating these disputes, consulting with a real estate lawyer experienced in Florida property tax law can be invaluable. Legal professionals can offer guidance on the appeal process, represent property owners in hearings, and provide advice on the likelihood of success in challenging tax assessments. Additionally, they can assist in ensuring that all procedural requirements are met and deadlines are adhered to, which is crucial for a successful appeal.

Understanding your rights and the procedures for contesting property tax assessments in Florida can save significant amounts of money and prevent legal issues down the line. Whether it’s questioning the assessed value of your property or the legitimacy of a Non Ad Valorem tax, taking an informed approach is key.

Practical Advice for Property Owners in Florida

Here are some practical tips to manage and potentially reduce your tax liabilities:

  • Understand Your Tax Bill: Carefully review your annual tax bill to distinguish between Ad Valorem and Non Ad Valorem taxes. Understanding each charge can help you identify any discrepancies or areas for potential appeals.
  • Regular Property Assessments: Keep track of your property’s assessed value and compare it with similar properties in your area. If your property seems overvalued, consider filing an appeal.
  • Exemptions and Discounts: Florida offers various exemptions (e.g., homestead exemption) and discounts for eligible property owners that can significantly reduce tax liabilities. Ensure you’re taking advantage of any applicable benefits.
  • Seek Professional Advice: Consulting with a real estate lawyer can provide valuable insights into your specific situation, especially if you’re considering challenging your tax assessment or if you have complex questions about your tax liabilities.

Give Us A Call

Understanding the nuances between Ad Valorem and Non Ad Valorem taxes is crucial for Florida property owners. These taxes not only affect your annual financial obligations but also reflect the broader responsibilities of property ownership within the community. Don’t forget, we’re here to lend you our experience and expertise when navigating difficult real estate matters, so give us a call!


Stephen K. Hachey P.A. Stephen K. Hachey P.A.
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Whether you’re buying, selling, or simply investing in property, the guidance of a seasoned real estate lawyer can be invaluable. However, the effectiveness of this guidance largely depends on your ability to ask the right questions. The questions are designed to uncover crucial information, ensuring your real estate dealings with a lawyer are both secure and advantageous. From understanding the impact of zoning laws to navigating homeowner association regulations, these questions will prepare you to engage with your real estate lawyer proactively.

Questions You Should Ask

What are your qualifications and experience in real estate law? This can likely be found at his/her website, but it’s still important to ask so that you can get a feel for how they answer it in person. After all, you want to ensure that they possess the necessary skills and experience to manage your real estate needs.

How do you charge for your services, and what costs should I expect? Clarifying the lawyer’s fee structure and any anticipated costs upfront can help you understand the financial aspects of your legal representation, including how they bill and any additional expenses that might arise. It might be ideal to get this in writing as well.

Can you walk me through the legal process of buying/selling a property in this area? This question aims to gain a comprehensive overview of the transaction process, highlighting any specific legal requirements or steps unique to your locality.

What are the potential legal issues I should be aware of in this real estate transaction? This is a big one. Making sure that all potential legal challenges are seen early are key. Examples include disputes over property titles or zoning laws, is essential for mitigating risks and ensuring a smooth transaction.

How will you communicate updates and information to me throughout the process? Understanding the lawyer’s approach to communication and how often they will update you ensures that you are kept informed about the progress of your case and any actions you need to take.

Can you explain the terms of the contract in simple terms? This question ensures that you fully understand the contract’s provisions, obligations, and any legal jargon, helping to avoid misunderstandings or surprises later in the transaction.

What are the tax implications of this transaction? It’s important to discuss the tax consequences associated with your real estate deal, as this can significantly affect the overall cost and financial planning of the transaction.

How do you handle disputes that may arise during the transaction? Knowing the lawyer’s approach to resolving potential conflicts, whether through negotiation, mediation, or litigation, gives you insight into how they protect your interests under challenging circumstances.

What documents do I need to prepare, and can you help me with that? This question helps you identify all necessary documentation for the transaction and ensures you have professional assistance in preparing or reviewing these documents to avoid delays or issues.

How long do you anticipate this transaction will take to complete? Understanding the expected timeline helps you plan accordingly and sets realistic expectations for how long it will take to finalize your real estate transaction.

How does recent legislation or zoning changes in this area affect my transaction or future property use? This question is essential as it addresses how new laws or zoning ordinances could influence your rights and responsibilities as a property owner. For instance, recent legislation might introduce new requirements for property development, environmental compliance, or change the types of activities allowed on the property.

Can you identify any easements, covenants, or restrictions on the property that could impact my intended use? These can significantly limit how a property can be used, developed, or altered. For example, an easement may grant a neighbor or utility company the right to use a portion of the property, while covenants might dictate architectural styles or landscaping requirements in a community. This question helps uncover any such legal limitations that could affect your enjoyment or modification of the property, which any good real estate lawyer should be able to guide you on.

What are the implications of environmental regulations on this property, and is there a need for any environmental assessments? Environmental regulations can impact property transactions in several ways, from restricting land use to imposing cleanup responsibilities for contamination. Asking this question helps you understand whether your property is subject to environmental protections, such as wetlands preservation or hazardous waste regulations, which could limit development or impose significant costs for compliance. An environmental assessment might be necessary to identify potential issues, such as soil contamination or endangered species habitats, which could affect your ability to develop the property or lead to liability for cleanup costs.

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How can I protect my transaction from future claims of adverse possession? Adverse possession is a legal doctrine allowing someone to claim ownership of land under certain conditions, such as open and notorious use for a specific period. To protect your transaction, it’s important to understand how to prevent unauthorized use of your property that could lead to claims like this. This might involve strategies like regular property inspections, fencing, clear signage, or legal actions to remove trespassers. Regardless, this is something that your would-be attorney should be able to shine some light on for you.

Are there any innovative legal strategies you suggest to optimize my investment or protect against market volatility? This question seeks advice on leveraging legal structures or strategies to enhance the value of your real estate investment or mitigate risks associated with market fluctuations. For example, creating a real estate holding company might offer tax advantages, limit liability, or provide flexibility in managing or expanding your property portfolio. Additionally, understanding how to use legal tools like options to purchase, rights of first refusal, or leaseback arrangements can provide financial benefits or protect against downturns in the real estate market. This question may cross over into more of the tax side of things, but it’s still good to ask. Worst case scenario, they can always refer you to a good accountant/financial planner.

Can you review and advise on the potential impact of homeowners association (HOA) rules and regulations on my property? HOA rules can significantly affect your ability to modify your property, dictate maintenance standards, and even impact your financial obligations towards the community through fees and assessments. Understanding these rules before proceeding with a transaction can prevent future conflicts and ensure that your property use aligns with the community’s standards.

In the case of purchasing a property with tenants, what are my legal obligations to them, and how can I ensure a smooth transition? Buying a property that already has tenants requires understanding your legal responsibilities as a new landlord, including honoring existing lease agreements, security deposit transfers, and tenant rights under local laws.

How does the law in this jurisdiction handle digital assets or smart home technology included in the sale of a property? As smart home technology becomes increasingly integrated into properties, understanding the legal treatment of these digital assets during a property transaction is more important than you may think. This question addresses whether digital assets, like smart thermostats, security systems, or even digital door locks, are considered fixtures that come with the property or personal property that can be removed by the seller.

Next Moves

Real estate transactions can be fraught with legal complexities and challenges. However, equipped with the right questions, you can navigate this terrain. Remember, a well-informed client not only makes better decisions but also fosters a more productive and insightful relationship with their legal counsel. As you move forward with your real estate ventures, let these questions guide your discussions, ensuring that your legal support is as comprehensive and effective as possible.


Stephen K. Hachey P.A. Stephen K. Hachey P.A.
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Call Now! (813) 549-0096

Partition actions in Florida are legal processes initiated to divide jointly owned property when co-owners cannot agree on its disposition. This situation often arises in cases of inherited property, joint investments, or shared residential properties. Understanding who bears the financial responsibility in such actions is crucial, as it can significantly impact the decision-making and legal strategy of the involved parties.

In a partition action, costs are not just limited to the monetary value but also encompass the time, effort, and emotional toll it can take on the parties involved. The process can be complex, involving various legal procedures, negotiations, and sometimes, court trials.

Understanding the Costs Involved

The costs associated with a partition action in Florida can be varied and substantial. These typically include:

  • Legal Fees: The most significant expense in most partition actions. Legal fees cover the cost of hiring an attorney to represent a party’s interests. These fees can vary widely based on the complexity of the case, the attorney’s experience, and the duration of the legal process.
  • Court Costs: These are the fees required to file a lawsuit and other related legal documents in court. Court costs are generally standard and mandated by the state’s legal system.
  • Costs for Additional Services: Depending on the case, there might be expenses for professional services such as property appraisals, accounting services, and real estate agents’ fees (especially if the property needs to be sold).
  • Other Miscellaneous Expenses: These can include costs for mediation (if parties opt for it), travel expenses for legal proceedings, and administrative expenses like postage and copying.

It’s important to note that these costs can escalate if the partition action is contested or involves complex legal issues. For instance, if one party disputes the property valuation or challenges the sale process, additional legal and professional services may be required, increasing the overall costs.

Allocation of Costs Among Co-Owners

In Florida, the general principle for allocating costs in a partition action is based on the ownership interest of each co-owner. However, this straightforward approach can be influenced by several factors:

  • Ownership Share: Typically, costs are divided proportionally to each owner’s share in the property. For instance, if one co-owner holds a 60% share and another 40%, they would generally bear 60% and 40% of the costs, respectively.
  • Contribution to Property Expenses: If one party has historically contributed more towards property expenses (like maintenance, taxes, or mortgage payments), this might be considered in adjusting the cost allocation. The court may decide to reimburse these contributions from the sale proceeds before dividing the remaining amount.
  • Agreements Among Co-Owners: Co-owners can mutually agree on a different arrangement for cost distribution. Such agreements, especially if documented legally, can supersede the standard proportional division based on ownership shares.
  • Litigation Conduct: If one party’s actions unnecessarily prolong or complicate the litigation (like bringing frivolous claims), the court might order that party to pay a larger share of the costs.

Understanding these nuances is crucial, as they can significantly affect the financial outcome for each party involved in the partition action.

Court’s Role in Cost Allocation

In Florida, the court plays a pivotal role in determining the allocation of costs in a partition action, especially in contested cases or when co-owners cannot reach an agreement. The court’s decision is guided by principles of equity and fairness, considering the specific circumstances of each case. Here are some scenarios where court intervention might occur:

  • Disputes Over Cost Allocation: If co-owners disagree on how costs should be divided, the court will make a determination based on ownership shares, contributions to property expenses, and other relevant factors.
  • Requests for Reimbursement: Parties can request the court to reimburse them for expenses they have incurred for the property’s benefit. The court will examine these claims and decide on their validity and the reimbursement amount.
  • Contested Actions: In cases where the partition action is contested, the court may have to delve deeper into the case’s specifics to determine a fair cost allocation. This might include assessing the necessity and reasonableness of incurred costs.

The court’s involvement ensures that the cost allocation process is just and equitable, taking into account the unique aspects of each case. However, this can also mean additional legal proceedings, potentially increasing the overall costs.

For partition actions in our state, understanding who bears the costs is crucial. While the general rule is a proportional division based on ownership interest, factors like individual contributions, agreements among co-owners, and litigation conduct can influence this. The court plays a vital role in ensuring fair cost allocation, especially in disputes. Seeking legal counsel is advisable for navigating these complexities effectively.


Stephen K. Hachey P.A. Stephen K. Hachey P.A.
Have Questions?
Speak With a Real Estate Attorney Now
Call Now! (813) 549-0096